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ربط دهنده ها : when ,as,while,whether ,if,since

When:1.

.۱.برای بیان ۲ عمل متوالی (پشت سر هم با فاصله کوتاه

.When I opened the window ,the cat jumped out

.(دو عمل بدنبال یکدیگر)

در این جمله When به معنی "به محض اینکه میباشد و به جای آن میتوان از as نیز استفاده کرد

۲.برای بیان ۲ عمل همزمان (عمل کوتاه با when

.She was in the other room whenthe phone rang.

(عمل همزمان)

WhenI got home ,they were watching TV

=(عمل کوتاه با when

۳.بیان واقعیت /تکرار عملی /عادت /دوره زمانی

I become happy when(ever) I meet my family .( تکرار =عادت )

 

ربط دهنده ها : when ,as,while,whether ,if,since

When:1.

.۱.برای بیان ۲ عمل متوالی (پشت سر هم با فاصله کوتاه

.When I opened the window ,the cat jumped out

.(دو عمل بدنبال یکدیگر)

در این جمله When به معنی "به محض اینکه میباشد و به جای آن میتوان از as نیز استفاده کرد

۲.برای بیان ۲ عمل همزمان (عمل کوتاه با when

.She was in the other room whenthe phone rang.

(عمل همزمان)

WhenI got home ,they were watching TV

=(عمل کوتاه با when

۳.بیان واقعیت /تکرار عملی /عادت /دوره زمانی

I become happy when(ever) I meet my family .( تکرار =عادت )

4. I learned English when (=While) I was in London .(دوره زمانی )

5.When I get home ,I will call you .(……)

7.When I got home ,they were watching TV.(……)

8. When (ever)you exercise ,your body uses the extra fuel.(….)

9. When I left home ,I remembered I didn’t have any keys (......) 

10.I lost my father when I was 12 years old .(…)

10.1.When she pressed the button ,the lift stopped.(press :not continuous )

10.2.When the TV star arrives ,there will be a big crowd .( arrive: not continuous)

AS :Different uses of "as":کاربردهای

11. He speaks English as fluently as a native speaker.(تساوی )

12. As I completed my project ,I sent it to my professor's office .(وقتی که /به محض اینکه )

13. As long as he continues telling lie,nobody will help him .(اگر-شرطی)

14. As I mentioned ,tomorrow the schools will remain closed(همانطور که )

15. As I was fixing my car ,my wife was setting the table (عمل همزمان )

16.I will do it as you tell me. (همانطور که )

17.As you become older ,you become less willing to change your ideas .(نسبت :هر چقدر سن بره بالا -)در نسبت معمولا جمله بصورت تفضیلی نوشته میشود

18. As Linda is the oldest child ,she has to look after the children(چون )

19.Send me some money as soon as you can .(=When )

20.She is as quiet as a mouse .(تساوی :به آرامی یک موش )

21. As I pointed , tomorrow the schools will remain closed

22.She treats me as if she hated me (unreal things -غیر واقعی)

معنی جمله :طوری رفتار میکرد که انگار از من بدش میاد .

23.It looks as if the weather is improving.(may happen )

24.A:The food is good .B:Yes,the prices are reasonable,as well .(همینطور/علاوه بر این )

As = While .1.بیان دو عمل همزمان (به معنی همزمانی : در حالی که )

While I was fixing my car ,my wife was setting the table .

AsI was fixing my car ,my wife was setting the table .

WhileI was in London ,I learned a lot about computer science .

2. (As )بیان دو عمل که بدنبال یکدیکر انجام شده است .در این صورت از WHEN نیز میتوان استفاده کرد (( در معنی وقتی یا به محض اینکه ))

AsI completed my project ,I sent it to my professor's office .

= When I completed my project ,I sent it to my professor's office

3. (As =since=because)دلیل -reason :

As Linda is the oldest child ,(so)she has to look after the children .

=Since Linda is the oldest child ,she has to look after the children

I couldn’t wait for him because I was in a hurry .

SinceI was in a hurry ,I couldn’t wait for him.

Becausethe weather was cold ,we had to stay at home .

= Because of the cold weather ,we had to stay at home .

4.As (نسبت :proportion )

Asit grows darker ,it becomes colder.(در نسبت صفت تفضیلی)

Since :(time/reason )" :"چون "و "از زمانی که

I haven’t seen him since I moved here .

Whether /if/unless/provided that .. (شرطی)

I will go to work if I feel better .

I will go to work if I feel better or not .

I will go to work whether I feel better or not .

I will go to work whether or not I feel better .

**I will go to work if or not I feel better .(wrong /why?)جمله به این شکل درست نیست

You can't buy this car unless you have enough money .unless means =if ....................... not

You can't buy this car if you have not enough money

 

Some points :

 

WhenI left home ,I remembered I didn’t have any keys(( از خانه خارج شده بعد بخاطرآورده

AsI left home ,I remembered I didn’t have any keys .(( در حالیکه از خانه خارج می شده بخاطرآورده

.=While I was leaving home , I remembered I didn’t have any keys.

. As I completed my project ,I sent it to my professor's office .

=When I completed my project ,I sent it to my professor's office .As I didn’t study , I failed (why)

As I was getting off the bus , I fell down.(when )

My brother has a headache when he watches TV.(whenever)

When =While=As we were driving through the forest ,we saw a strange animal .(when as your last choice

We were all pleased when she passed the exam .( not continuous )

They sang as they walked .(continuous :ماهیتا استمراری )

As prices rise ,(so )the demand of higher wages will increase .(چون )

We got to the station late because the traffic was heavy .

We got to the station late because of the heavy traffic

بعد ازbecauseof اسم و یا فعل با ing

We got to the station late due to heavy traffic .= because of

While /As I was climbing the mountain ,I lost my control and fell down .

When I got to the station ,the train had left .

As a student he had known great poverty .(when he was a student )وقتی =As

As a student he get in for a half price .(since he was a student)چون =As

Choose the best answer                     :گزینه صحیح را انتخاب کنید

1.The doorbell rang …...we were having lunch .

(when /since/whereas/so that )

2.She 's been waiting for Jack's letter …….he left her six months ago.

(when/while/as/since)

3……..I want to open this door ,it produces a noise .

(as /when /since/whereas)

4.She came and asked me ….… I really wanted to leave .

(whether/since/while/where)

5.She had an accident ……..she was crossing the street .

(since /when/whether/ever since)

6.The last time I went to shiraz was in Tir …..the weather was hot .

(as/ whether/since/when)

7.His parents died ……he was only a boy of 12.

(sice/as/when/because)

8.I always felt lonely ..….having very few friends to go out with .

(since/as/because of /when )

9.He left his hometown and has not returned there ….

(since then =ever since /from then /till then )

10…...moving to a warmer places ,I had had no trouble with my asthma .

(as/when/since/while)

11.Just …... I was taking the photograph ,sb walked in front of the camera .

(so /as/since/until)

12.When I visited the musume ,I felt ….I had returned to past times .

(as long as /as soon as /as if )

13.I saw an accident ….I was walking home .

(when /because /since/as)

14…..I was too hungry ,I stopped to buy a sandwich .

(when /while /as /whether)

15.In the 12 months …..I wrote to you ,a lot has happened to me .

(as/whether/when/since)

16.She asked me ..….she was coming .

(as/since/so/ whether)

17.Leave things ..…they are until the police arrives .

(when /as/since/whether)

18.I learned to speak English …I was in South America last year .

(while/then/since/whether)

19.I can still remember the day ……we met each other .

(while/as/when/whereas)

20.It is thought that the present generation has never worked …..the former one .

(as hardly as /as harder as /as hard as /as hard like )

21…..when haven’t you seen him ?

(as/long/when/while)

22.They have reconstructed a lot of houses in Bam ….they started their work .

(while/since/when/as)

23…… she finished her work ,she could move home .(

because of /while/when /during )

24……..her politeness and beauty she was admired by everyone .

(because/as/because of /since)

25.She didn’t know ……..her father let her go to picnic with her friends.

(whether /while /because /however)

26.I like to keep fit ,so I go swimming as ….as I can .

(if/long/soon/often)

 

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